Mantra: Virtualization and automation technologies such as NFV, SDN, OpenStack, and orchestration facilitate deployment of 5G networks.
Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) virtualizes a Network Function by (typically) deploying software on generic Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) hardware. NFV reduces costs and provides scalability and agility. Software Defined Networking (SDN) centralizes networking intelligence to dynamically identify optimal paths for IP packets. SDN reduces costs due to simpler packet forwarding devices and reduces manual configurations. OpenStack automates management of the cloud infrastructure resources. Orchestration facilitates automated service creation and management and could make use of service orchestrator, NFV orchestrator, and SDN orchestrator. Open Network Automation Platform (ONAP) is a popular orchestration framework.